KABLOONAS

KABLOONAS
Burial of John Franklin. Author: me

KABLOONAS

Kabloonas is the way in which the Inuit who live in the north part of Canada call those who haven´t their same ascendency.

The first time i read this word was in the book "Fatal Passage" by Ken McGoogan, when, as the result of the conversations between John rae and some inuit, and trying to find any evidence of the ill-fated Sir John Franklin Expedition, some of then mentioned that they watched how some kabloonas walked to die in the proximities of the river Great Fish.

I wish to publish this blog to order and share all those anecdotes that I´ve been finding in the arctic literature about arctic expeditions. My interest began more than 15 years ago reading a little book of my brother about north and south pole expeditions. I began reading almost all the bibliography about Antarctic expeditions and the superknown expeditions of Scott, Amundsen, Shackleton, etc. After I was captured by the Nansen, Nobile and Engineer Andree. But the most disturbing thing in that little book, full of pictures, was the two pages dedicated to the last Franklin expedition of the S.XIX, on that moment I thought that given the time on which this and others expeditions happened, few or any additional information could be obtained about it. I couldn´t imagine that after those two pages It would be a huge iceberg full of stories, unresolved misteries, anecdotes, etc. I believe that this iceberg, on the contrary than others, would continue growing instead melting.



miércoles, 18 de febrero de 2015

DEALY ISLAND: BEECHEY ISLAND´S TWIN

Surely a lot of you know well Beechey Island, where it is and what you can be able to find there. Beechey island is that desolate piece of land where the Franklin expedition spent its first winter of 1845-46 and where their first three casualties were buried.

It is somehow, less know that about 500 km (260 nmi) west from there is another tiny island where other three graves are looking at the icy sea of the Melville sound. All the information I have summarized here comes from a 1964´s article in Canadian Geographic  written by C.R. Harington and has been completed with some data which comes from my recent research done to allow me draw the "Arctic Graveyard" map.

William Edward Parry named the island after one of his midshipman of the HMS Hecla, William Justin Dealy, on his voyage towards the discovery of the Northwest Passage in 1819. It wouldn´t be until years later, in 1851, when another celebrity of arctic exploration will step on that island. He was Leopold McCLintock, who leading a sledge party as part of the Horatio Austin´s expedition, mapped and described the island.  A year later, in 1852, again McClintock as second in command of the Kellet´s expedition reached again the island on board the ships HMS Resolute and his tender HMS Intrepid.  This time they had to winter there. On doing that they put a flagstaff and stablished a big depot of supplies. 

It was that winter when Thomas Mobley, steward of the HMS Resolute died. It seems that he had been "incapable of any great exertion" for a long time, apparently because a latent heart disease. The 18th of october he went up to the upper deck without the proper clothing. The difference of temperatures did the rest of the job. He died almost instantly and, according with the narrative of the voyage: 

"...many days were occupied in getting sufficient depth beneath the surface, and even then we were compelled to rest satisfied with only two feet eight inches, and to effect this, powder was obliged to be resorted to, in addition to pickaxes, shovels, and the usual implements for digging."

Those are the virtues of the permafrost. Eight days after his death, the 26th october the crew of both ships were gathered in the island to perform the funeral after having dragged his coffin on a sledge from the ships to the coastline.


Ensigns on board were hoisted half mast and the bells tolled. It was a windy and unpleasant day, but they always are under those circunstances, aren´t they?.  His grave was located in a place near a beach in the eastern shore of the island. 

There is another version of his death which tells a very different story, the one above comes from "The eventful voyage of HM discovery ship Resolute  to the arctic regions", the official account. The other comes from the book HMS Resolute. On it, is described how Thomas Mobley fell to the cold water while coming back towards the ships in the course of a sledge trip which was lead by Hamilton. It is said that he was taken out from water already dead. As Elizabeth´s book is a sort of a dramatization of the adventure, we should take for granted the description of the original and official narration. The grave of Thomas was soon accompanied by the grave of George Drover, Captain of the forecastle of the Intrepid. The difficulty of digging his grave is described in the narrative of the voyage:

"The deceased was then conveyed to his last resting place, beside the grave of our much regretted steward. Much difficulty had been experienced in digging a grave; for in addition to the the heavy gale, ..., the ground was frozen as hard as granite, on which the crow-bars, pickaxes, and shovels made little or no impression. ... After a week´s labour a depth of two feet ten inches was obtained".

The sketch (below), which appears in Harison´s article and whose origin is the book "The eventful voyage of H.M. Discovery ship to the arctic regions", shows three graves. The third man buried in Dealy island  was John Coombs, the Stoker of the HMS Intrepid. This man died during a sledge trip to the north part of Melville island, his mates insisted on carrying the body back to the winter quarters to be buried together with the rest. Not a small feat, indeed, which deserves a couple of "Hoorays" for those men, specially if we consider that the sledges were man-hauled and that the distance covered was over 80 km overland. 

His death is described as being provoked by a fall on frozen waters and it is said, this time in the official narrative, that his death was similar to that of Thomas Mobley. Then? what was the real reason of Thomas´s death?, I  don´t really know. 
Graves of Kellet´s men on Dealy Island.
The ships Resolute and Intrepid are in the Background.
From: the Eventful Voyage of the HM discovery ship Resolute to the arctic regions
From: http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/franklin-expedition/docs/1964_March_Canadian_Geographic.pdf
http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/blog/archives.asp?tag=dealy%20island
It was during this expedition when contact was made by Bedford Pim, from the Resolute, with Robert McLure, who was in ice-choked HMS Investigator in Mercy Bay. Pim appeared as a ghostly vision to rescue a "sat on the verge" Robert McLure from the disaster. It was in Dealy island where both expeditions get together. 

Meanwhile, Kellet have ordered the construction of a stout store house of big dimensions (40 feet x 14 feet) with thick walls. Remains of this building were still visible in 1978 as you can see in the picture below. As a curiosity, among the hundreds of items left in that caché there was a Halkett boat.

Kellet´s store house
Parks Canada 1978
http://www.historicplaces.ca/en/rep-reg/image-image.aspx?id=7104#i1
One of the things which has impressed me more is the fact that one of the Kellet´s boat was found in pretty good conditions even after 54 years of its abandonment (see picture below). The Canadian Captain J.E. Bernier on board the D.G.S. Arctic, landed in the island in 1908. He discovered that the Kellet´s caché was still  untouched. Documents were found in containers which still preserved their seals. They also found the three graves with their respective tombstones still erected, and, yes, a 14 feet whale boat which was hurriedly left behind by Kellet after the ice suddenly had released his ships from their trap.

The innaccesibility of the location of Dealy Island made possible this little miracle, this time the boats remained untouched by human hands. The reason of the abandonment of this boat makes me think about the reasons which could have forced the men of the Franklin expedition to abandon their own boats while trying to escape from King William Island. Dealy Island´s boat is an opportune clon of those abandoned boats of King William Island and its picture allows us to travel in time to see or imagine what McClintock saw when he found them. The boat was taken on board the D.G.S Arctic and carried to the National museum.

From: http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/franklin-expedition/docs/1964_March_Canadian_Geographic.pdf

The three graves with its tombstones were still there in 1917 when Steffanson arrived at the island, but the tombstones covered by moss were not standing anymore. Even in 1961, when the men from an aircraft landed in the sea in the eastern side of the island, they were still easily recognizable. 

That is the last time it is mentioned its existence in the Harington´s article. However, there were more visits after those mentioned and defenitely the graves were always seen by all the subsuquent expeditions. The place is described in this article where you could find detailed pictures of the store house with interesting pictures of some of the goods left there, leather boots, and so on....even more could be found in this unpublished article if it had been published..."Yorga, Brian 1979. Kellet's Storehouse, Dealy Island, Canadian High Arctic." 

All those expeditions which ended on that island tasted the mid nineteenth century delicacies stored there but any of them disturbed the graves. I wonder if the resting place of these three men, much less known than the three Beechey Island men, is still untouched. I wonder why any of those numerous expeditions took the oak tombstones with them and replaced the originals for new ones as it happened in Beechey Island.  I wonder where the Resolute´s boat will have ended its days and if it is still visible for the public somewhere or if it was tore into little pieces to feed some fireplace. 

I wonder I wonder I wonder...

sábado, 7 de febrero de 2015

JUNIUS ABANDONMENT: MURDER OR VICTIM OF THE CRITICAL CIRCUNSTANCES?

It has been widely discussed if the killing of Michel Terohuate, the Iriquois who killed the Midshipman Robert Hood during the Franklin Coppermine expedition (breath), was an unavoidable execution or just a murder. Williard Wentzel appealed then for a formal investigation but he was basically ignored. However, it has been forgotten the fact that not too many days before this happened, the Inuit Junius (Hoeootoerock-"The ear") was merely and apparently abandoned while he was hunting to feed the party. Franklin and the men had been stopped by the course of the Coppermine river on their way back to Fort Enterprise. They hadn't boats to cross the river so they were detained for sometime to build a small one and then they crossed the rapids leaving Junius behind.


Junius and Augustus
http://prints.royalsociety.org/art/579215/inuit-interpreters-junius-l-and-augustus-r

Just before crossing Junius shots were heard by Credit (one of the voyageurs) who had been sent to hunt with him. His mate, Augustus told Franklin not to worry about him because he surely would manage to survive the winter by his own.

The fact that Augustus after crossing the river marched always onwards and always separated from the main body of the group is significative. He managed not only to reach Fort Enterprize but to reach Akaitcho camp before than the rest of the pary safe and sound. He likely prefered or even forced that not stay with the rest of the party, which surely was considered by him as a deadly burden.

If the disspeareance of Junius was previously planned by the inuit couple or just by himself or if it must be considered an abandonment and therefore a crime, is a matter of conjecture and reflection. Junius was by then well equipped with enough ammunition, blankets, knives and a kettle. If someone was predestined to survive through all those harsh conditions those were the inuit people, they were survivors by nature, they were get used to overcome worst conditions than the ones they were suffering. They knew perfectly well how to live and survive a winter. There is a number of stories about indian women who survived whole winters in the northern arctic by their own after being abadoned by their tribes. Franklin himself tells one of these stories in his narrative of this journey.
A lonely but well prepared man, as Junius surely should be considered, had more chances to survive than twenty badly prepared men. My guess and bet is that Junius survived that winter and that he likely reached some Fort or indian camp. We will never know,  he could have even come back to the north in the spring and joined again the Inuit people who they met in Bloody falls. We should remember that  Augustus was offered a bribe to stay with the old man (White Fox) who they talked to when they reached the inuit camp of Bloody Falls the summer of 1821. That bribe  consisted on offering Augustus the daughter of the old man.

Augustus was latter contracted for subsequents overland expeditions. His achievements piled stuff enough to feed another blog post. He gained a position in several accounts and even a place of honour in the Dictionary of Canadian  Biography.

And for Junius, Franklin mentions only cursoryly how they were worried about his whereabouts, but not too dramatically in my opinion. He didn't express any remorse and it doesn't seem he had even thought on staying there longer to wait for him.  On the other hand, the voyageurs and Augustus were confident about his chances of survival. He was a good hunter, his achievements are described here and there in the Franklin's narrative. Why then should we think otherwise? He could have found a wife in one of the inuit settlements located north of point lake or he could have just died alone of starvation, being attacked by wolves or have fallen ill in some place east of the Coppermine river. In that latter case his body would be feeding the massive graveyard which the arctic would become whithin the coming years.

viernes, 30 de enero de 2015

THE LOST FROZEN IN TIME

The three men buried on Beechey Island are sadly and mainly known because they were virtually frozen in time, as wisely John Geiger and Owen Beattie titled them on their book, and also because they were part of the equally sadly known last Franklin expedition. Their macabre grin will smile to us forever in our dreams, at least till the moment we could smile grotesquely them back in return from our own graves. 

However, though it was their exceptional state of preservation and not their link with the Franklin expedition which have given them their fame, the fact is that there are other graves dispersed all over the arctic archipielago which could contain men as well preserved as the men buried in Beechey Island. Graves which belonged to other expeditions. For example, we have the case of the three men who were buried very close to the place where the HMS Investigator was found. No attempts to unbury them have been made yet and it seems they won´t be done in the short term.

Recently, I have found in the Manitoba museum web site the wooden leg which was worn by the Inuit Tulluahiu. This man, luckily for him, crossed his path with John Ross during his expedition in the ship Victory during the years 1829 to 1833. It has been his story which had led me to the sad story of Chimham Thomas, the carpenter of that expedition.The journalist Ken Harper told the story of this man and his leg in this article.

It is almost certain that Chimham saved the life of this man who was found being pulled in a sledge by his relatives and who ended walking and hunting as any other hunter of his tribe.

Tulluahiu and his wooden leg.
http://disstud.blogspot.com.es/2005_08_01_archive.html

Chimham not only did a wonderful job making that wooden leg which would last hundreds of years, he also mended it several times, did improvements and even produced spare parts for being used for the man when the expedition would leave.

Wooden leg
http://manitobamuseum.ca/main/an-act-of-kindness/

Unfortunately, the poor carpenter died the spring before the men of the expedition were rescued in 1833. It has been his death, in his turn, which has led me to discover that two other men had previously died during that. James Dixon and James Marslin. It  is the description of their burials which has made me think that perhaps those two men could be beautifully preserved. In the case of Dixon, John Ross describes how digging his grave took the men approximately a week. In the case of Marslin, it is only said it took too much time .

One could imagine, that as these two graves were dug while the things were still not too bad in the expedition, perhaps they could be in the same perfect shape than those of Beechey Island, therefore, their bodies could be at least as well preserved as the bodies of John Torrington, William Braine and John Hartnell.  The position of the Dixon´s grave is indicated in this article published in Northern News in 1957. It should not be far from the place where the Victory cache was deployed. It seems that a Patrol from the R.C.M.P discovered in the 1970 a skull which could have belonged Dixon. I doubt it, I can´t believe that after a week digging someone or something could have had access to his coffin, opened it and had taken apart his skull. However, there is another likely possibility, and that is the fact that the permafrost is melting.

There are more and more cases in the news of  graves which had been dug in the permafrost  which are now appearing in surface. Like in an horror movie, coffins and bones are emerging from the ground to salute the people walking around.



Pipsuk grave?According to Russell Potter who make the suggestion, this grave could have belonged to Pipsuk.
http://www.climatestorytellers.org/stories/subhankar-banerjee-sing-about-warmed-earth/exposed-coffin.jpg

Wolfgang Opel, the co-author of the book Eisbären, also called my attention about the case of the grave of the explorer Hermann WalterRussian Polar expedition of 1900-1902who, it seems, also decided to breath some fresh air.

This, in my opinion, could be the case of Dixon, whose grave would be located about four degrees south of the latitude where the graves of the men of the Franklin expedition are located in Beechey Island. In the article mentioned above is described and discussed the location of his grave and the location of the tunnel where John Ross put his cache of food and instrumental in Victoria Harbour before abandoning his ship. They built it during the first days of january of 1832 as if they were pirates hiding a treasure. To add more mistery and glamour to this scene, one day, as if it were a signal, an enormous meteor crossed the sky illuminating the whole valley (Chapter 48 of the narrative of the expedition). I haven´t found traces which could determine where James Marslin could have been buried, I only known that he died earlier and that he likely was buried during the winter of 1830-31.

Globalization,  if we want to call this way, with the pass of time is bringing us to our homes through internet more and more pictures of inaccessible places. There are some  photos of Fury Beach which could excite our imagination, These pictures show us places which we have seen countless times in paintings. They show us quiet beaches, narrow gorges, and steep cliffs. We could easily imagine that in one of those stony beaches could have been buried for example the good carpenter Chimham Thomas. 

To finish, I would like to make some reflection. I have read somewhere that more men died trying to find the Franklin expedition than in the Franklin expedition itself. I would bet that this assertion is false. If we don´t count those 129 men, I find dubious that such amount of men had died in all the expeditions which went towards the North west Passage before and after of the Franklin expedition of 1845. Here and there men died  in the arctic archipielago, some them are now only a handful of bones are scattered in the bottom of the sea as happened to René Bellot, others are well buried in unknow places, others were half buried and where disturbed by wild life and others simply dissappeared forever without leaving a trace. All of them are there, in some place. It would be interesting to make an inventary of the deceased men during all those years, if possible, marking the conditions of their burials and approximate location.

James Dixon and James Marslin were part of those who were well buried in Boothia peninsula. Presumably, they are with all their flesh on and opened eyes staring the back of the lid of his coffin patiently waiting for us to be rescued from the forgotten. 



jueves, 22 de enero de 2015

THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE BY BALLOON

Yes, here we are again speaking about balloons and arctic expeditions, one of my favourite topics.

The Andreé expedition of 1897 has always mesmerized me. The Quixotic adventure and its dramatic end makes the perfect recipe for morbid minds like mine. The fact that the ill-fate of the three poor men who participated on the expedition was sadly ascertained 30 years after, when their journals and the pictures which were taken were discovered, only could add more fascination to the story. 
Eagle Crashed (Andreé´s balloon)
From Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Eagle-crashed.jpg

But from the reading of the story about the expedition, quickly, a question has begun to dominate my mind: Why there was not any attempt to explore the different waterways which forms the Northwest Passage with balloons during the peak years of its exploration? Why then waiting till 1897 to use them in the arctic regions? Was Andreé´s one the first attempt to use a balloon over the ice?

He likely was the first on attempting a manned one, but there were previous experiments with balloons in the arctic time before, as it is possible to see in the illustration below (about which case I couldn´t find any further information):
 Natives of Tornea Lapmark asembling at Enontekis to witnes the launching of the first balloon within the Arctic Circle. Published 1 January 1819 by T Cadell and W Davies
http://www.ssplprints.com/image/102950/pollard-robert-the-first-balloon-ascent-in-the-arctic-circle-c-1819
I find astonishing that in the middle of a voracious balloonmania, which surely was steaming in the minds of all Victorians in Britain, nobody would have even proposed to make a serious attempt to help to discover the Northwest Passage with a balloon.  I don´t want to show myself too naive saying here that a balloon could have crossed the whole passage in a single and successful attempt, of course, but, why not using it to help to do some small and parallel explorations. For instance, to discover if a bay was really a bay, or to analyse the direction of the shoreline of the new discovered lands, etc.

"Three Musketeers" by Peter Popken
http://www.peterpopken.com/folio.htm#
Somebody could think: Well, they were looking for a waterway suitable to be used for ships, large ships. We should not forget that the main objective which lies under the discovery of the Northwest Passage was to open a trading route, there were not scientific or sportive motivations. Well, that´s true, but at the time the Franklin expedition dissapeared forever in the arctic, there was not even a map of those northern regions. Aerial reconaissance would have been crucial at least to define where the waterways were and if they were blocked with ice or not.

Said that, now comes the technical matter, which surely is going to destroy any support to this theory.

We should talk first about flight range. How far could reach a balloon built in the mid 1800?

As early as 1785 the eccentric Jean-Pierre Blanchard had crossed the English channel at the same time he lost literally his trousers in the attempt and was threatening his companion with being thrown in case the things were wrong. Balloons had performed by then long trips of hundreds of kilometers and ascended heights as high as 9.000 feet (3.000 m) as was the case of Jacques Charles. In 1852, when numerous attempts to find Franklin and his men were being performed, the first dirigible made by Henrry Giffard was successfully performing its first flight.


Traversée en ballon du Pas-de-Calais par Blanchard et Jefferies (1785)Crossing of the Strait of Dover by Blanchard and Jefferies · Überquerung der Strasse von Dover durch Blanchard und Jefferies
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Early_flight_02562u_(7).jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Giffard#mediaviewer/File:Giffard1852.jpg
Giffard 1852´s dirigible
From Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Giffard1852.jpg
Without any doubt, it could have been Charles Green the man for that task, with more than 500 flights at his back, he performed the longest flight of that time. Taking off from Vauxhall Gardens in London he landed 770 km away in Germany after having been flying during the night. It was the year 1836, and this feat was not overcome till 1907. Green had performed experiments through which he had reached heights of more than 9.000 m

Portrait of Charles Green by Hilaire Ledru, 1835
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Green_(balloonist)
Then it is clear that ballooning was developing fast at the same time the expeditions were being sent to the arctic. Why don´t introduce then this new technology in the arctic expeditions?

The fact is that the technology was already being used by the Admiralty in their exploration ships, till certain point at least. They were not using manned balloons, but small ones which were widely employed  to send messages. The Franklin expedition was equipped with them, and the expeditions which went after them carried ballons too.

But why they weren't used to send a man up into the air to take a look at what was in front of the ships? Climbing perhaps not as high as 3.000 m but to 300 m could have been a good help in most of the cases to determine if a waterway was practicable or not. There must be something which made them to abandon the idea.

Balloons of that time were not that big not to be able to be carried in the big ships which conformed arctic expeditions, though perhaps they were too fragile. They were built of silk, paper and ropes, so this should not be considered as the main cause to dismiss them. Balloons, on the other hand can be filled with hot air or gas (mainly Coal gas, helium or Hidrogen) it would have been difficult to carry the necessary equipment to produce the necessary amount of gas to fill a balloon big enough to lift a man, however, that is not the case of using hot air. In fact hot air was being used even before the first experiments with gases. Why don´t using that method to inflate a balloon where access to gas was imposible otherwise? Well, naturally here we encounter our first barrier, is it logical using hot air in an enviroment where the temperatures hardly reach the freezing point? I would say this would be the main issue to take into consideration. Keeping  floating a balloon in air despite the ambient temperature would require a strong source of energy capable to produce enough hot air under almost any circunstances. Such source of energy  could only increases the risk of setting fire to those enormous balls of paper.

An illustration published in 1887 depicts French scientist's Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier's balloon catching fire before it crashed in 1785. ILLUSTRATION FROM SSPL/GETTY IMAGES
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/02/130226-hot-air-balloon-crashes-egypt/
It was the humidity of the air together with the cold which threw down Andreé and Nobile to the ground  during their respective attempts to reach the North Pole. But, as I said before, we are not speaking here about the possibility of crossing the whole Northwest Passage from east to west, thinking that favourable winds could carry a happy Franklin from London to Vancouver in a matter of some days. I was thinking more on why was not used such new, sophisticated  and helpful mean, like hot air balloons were, for short vertical flights of observation during the summer season which could have catapulted arctic expeditions to a third dimension, the height, from which it would have been possible understanding the ground and waters which surrounded them in a way never seen before in those remote places.

martes, 23 de diciembre de 2014

DOCTOR WHO AND THE FRANKLIN EXPEDITION

Time ago a follower of my blog, personal friend and archenemy of mine irrupted in one of my posts saying that he was dissappointed because he was expecting to read something about Doctor Who and there was nothing about him on it. Now, I can say that I consider I could have fulfilled his expectancies because finally, I have found the "lost link" between the Franklin expedition and Doctor Who.

Followers of both topics will be delighted of knowing that there is a fictional story available in the form of podcasts in internet. It is composed of eight episodes through which you can spend several days with the men of the Franklin expedition, listening their voices, while they were trapped in the ice.

I have begun to listen them and I have to say that I am enjoying it. The writer was well informed, there are certain small details, like for example the fact that the surgeon John Smart Peddie was recently married, which makes the atmosphere more credible. There is a review about the story here.

The story has been written by Richard A. Franklin. I wonder if there is any family connection between him and Sir John Franklin, that would undoubtedly close the circle. But, not only that, could exist also a relation of descendancy between William Hartnell, the english actor who incarnated Doctor Who from 1963 to 1966, and the Hartnell brothers which were on board the Franklin´s ships?. 

It could happen that after all it might be more than one simple connection between the Franklin expedition and Doctor Who...


William Hartnell - English Actor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hartnell

Time will say, but for the moment I have been able only to climb his family tree to his grand parents (mother side) who were Elizabeth Hartnell (b. 1851) and William Hartnell (b. 1848) both from Devon. I have no idea about who could have been his father. The Hartnell brothers comes from Gillingham, Kent which is right on the opposite side of the island.

 The three remaining siblings of John and Thomas were born in the eighteen twenties: Mary Ann (born 1826), Charles (born 1828), and Betsey (born 1832). So, I would only need to climb a branch more of the William´s family tree to find if there really is any connection between William Hartnell of Doctor Who and the Hartnell family of the Franklin expedition. However, as it used to happen with Franklin expedition issues, that link is impossible to find. 

POdcasts
http://dwexpanded.wikia.com/wiki/Terror_of_the_Arctic
You can find and download the podcasts in this link:

http://supersoundstudios.podomatic.com/




lunes, 22 de diciembre de 2014

JOHN SMART PEDDIE, SURGEON OF HMS TERROR

After the recent discovery of a portrait of Lt. John Irving by a fellow Franklinite in an on-line picture library from Edinburgh called Capital Collections, I thought, why could not I find another portrait of a member of the Franklin expedition in that same place? 

I, obviously, took the muster roll of the HMS Terror, and began to check the origins of her officers. Then, I found that John Smart Peddie, the surgeon of the Terror was from Edinburgh too, like Irving. Well, I have to say that I found nothing in Capital Collections but while I was digging in his life to ascertain where did he came from, I learnt some details about his life which I didn´t know. 

First, I was surprised when I learnt that he joined the Franklin Expedition with 29 years old. He had been recently promoted from assistant surgeon to surgeon few months before departing in 1845. Wouldn´t have been more appropiate for an expedition like that a more experienced surgeon? The age of Stephen Stanley, the surgeon of the Terror is not known, so, I have nothing to compare with ...unless I began another study about average ages of surgeons in Polar expeditions, which, thinking on it well, I could do too....why not?.

I read the article named "The men who sailed with Franklin"  where is mentioned that previously to get on board the Terror, Peddie, came from the ship "William and Mary", however, it is not mentioned which may have been likely his first appointment. A ship with the evoking name of HMS Sparrow, where he, allegedly, entered the 20th of december of 1836 not long after  having obtained the licence of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh as assistant surgeon. Interestingly, the HMS Sparrow was built in Pembroke docks, the same shipyard where it was built the Erebus. 

HMS Sparrow??
View of the Harbour of Port Louis - Berkley Sound, East Falkland

http://www.lowcay.org/showPage.php?id=7
The HMS Sparrow was, during the years 1837-39, part of the British Naval Expedition to the Falkland Islands commanded by Lt. Robert Lawcay. We have no reasons to think that Peddie did not form part of that expedition, so, if this fact is true, then we would have added a significant piece at his biography.

As I said before, I could not find any portrait of him, not even searching with the key words of "Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh". I thought that all those men might have been portrayed to be shown in a gallery of the college...but they are not. I found, though, which could be the portrait of his father, James Peddie, an architect of Edimburgh, who was born in 1776 and who died in 1837, a year after John Smart Peddie had joined the Royal Navy. Dates and name are coincident, which is not much but for now, and for me,  enough  to consider it as "likely":


James Peddie, Likely the father of John Smart Peddie
What remains of John Smart Peddie is a spoon which must be in some drawer at the Royal Maritime Museum of Greenwich. It seems that it was found in Starvation Cove to be given afterwards by some Inuit to John Rae. 

A fiddle-pattern silver dessert spoon owned by John Smart Peddie 
http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/2388.html

If Peddie was the one who was still using this spoon till the moment it was dropped in the muddy ground of the Starvation Cove beach, then, it was Peddie one of the ones who reached the farthest point of the route. It is a moving thinking consider that Peddie could have been driven by the powerful desire to see his daughter again, a daughter who was born in july of 1844 and baptised in january of 1845.

He could have been one of the few who found strength beyond the human limits to try to save his life pushing his will against the boundaries of his physical and psychical resistance. Unfortunately, he did not succeeded nor his daugther succeeded on surviving too. By the time Peddie was struggling  in 1849 against all hope to reach his family, his little daughter was dying in Woolwich, Kent.

As it happened with the vast majority of the 129 men who were on board the Erebus and Terror, Peddie doesn´t have any grave which you could visit to pay respects. From 125 of the men, you can  only find pieces of bones and skulls scattered all along King William Island or memorials distributed among Britain and other far places like Hobart in Tasmania. 

In the case of John Smart Peddie, he and his daughter were lucky enough to count with a small plaque as an individual memorial It is in the pathway of a church in Charlton, in the south east of London. This small stone, with some moving words carved on it, still provokes sad feelings on those who read them and it brings you to the reality that each of the men of the Franklin expedition left a life behind.

Those words are slowly dissapearing but they are still visible. Surely, this plaque was ordered by his wife, Eliza Matilda Harcorn, who lived till the year 1906. She surely would have prefered to avoid being witness of how subsequent  searching expeditions, year after year, brought news from the arctic with no essential new information. Nothing of which was brought from the arctic told her where his husband had breathed for last time or where his bones were resting.

miércoles, 26 de noviembre de 2014

LOVE YE THE STRANGERS

 ERASMUS YORK THE MAN WHO WAS ALSO PORTRAYED BY RICHARD BEARD  OR ALSO THE CANTERBURY CONNECTION WITH THE FRANKLIN EXPEDITION

Not few of us have felt frustrated at some point for the lack of daguerrotypes available about the Franklin expedition itself and about other expeditions of that time. It is true that photography was beginning to walk its first steps, but by the time of the Franklin expedition some photographers were quite active and thanks to them we have a handful of Dags where we can admire part of the participants of that expedition. Sometimes we only have had access to engravings published on the newspapers of the time which were in turn based on actual daguerrotypes. Likely, those original pictures are not longer available, and this is even more frustrating, because you can scratch the image with your fingers, get a general idea about how those men really were, but at the same time, you are also conscious that there will never be chances to contemplate the actual countenances of the men who made possible the discovery of the Northwest Passage. 

This is the case of Kalli or Caloosa or Qualasirssuaq or of the also called Erasmus York. He was one of the Inuit guides who accompanied the Horatio Austin expedition from 1850 to 1851. He was photographed at some point, surely the same day he reached British shores, by the famous photographer Richard Beard. His portrait appeared in the cover of the Ilustrated London News the 25th of october of 1851. Much have been written about him, specially here on its Memoirs. Through the reading of this document written by the Rev. T.B. Murray, you will get closer to this poor man. You will cry with him the death of his father, will breath the cold air of the arctic during his days in the Penny and Ommanney expedition, will live with him during his stay at Canterbury, will visit London and will learn other astounding things about his life, like for example that Kalli had a twin brother.

But his life, though interesting is not the subject of this post. Summarizing, Qualasirssuaq was picked up in Cape York  to guided the Captain Erasmus Ommanney on board the HMS Assistance. His main task was contrasting the information supplied by Adam Beck, an Inuit interpreter, which had asserted that the crews of the Franklin ships have been massacred while they still were on their ships. He could not be returned to his land during the return trip and ended studying in St Agustine´s College in Canterbury. There he helped to finish a dictionary Inuit - British and was baptized in St. Martin´s Church near Canterbury in 1853 in the presence of the John Franklin´s daughter, Eleanor, while the sermon was performed by her husband Joseph Phillip Gell.

NOTE: It deserves to make a short stop here, and extract from the book refered above an anecdote which happened during his time with Erasmus Ommaney during the 1850-51 expedition. It is about when his tribe was invited to see how the steam engines of the ships worked :

"As no steamer had ever before found its way to these seas, it was interesting to watch the impression upon the singular beings now visited, when they descended into the engine-room. The large furnaces and machinery astonished them. The latter, on being put in motion, made them take to their heels with fright, and they ran out of the engine-room on deck as fast as they could."

One can´t help thinking on if a visit could have been performed by the Inuit to the ships of the Franklin expedition when they met near King William Island.

It seems that during his stay there he made some sketches about Inuit life which are still preserved in the Canterbury Cathedral and it seems that he even made a chair which still exists in the St Martin´s church gardens.


The Esquimaux Erasmus York

http://www.lookandlearn.com/history-images/U254436/The-Esquimaux-Erasmus-York?img=10&search=Franklin+Expedition&bool=phrase
The posture of Kalli in the picture is strikingly similar to the pose of the officers of the Franklin Expedition who were photographed by Richard Beard. Does that mean that Beard, after taking those pictures of Franklin and Co. was somehow captivated  about their fate? I would say, judging for this picture and others allegedly taken by him of McClinctock and others, that he closely followed the steps of all of the men who went to the arctic after Franklin till the point that I would swear that he could have been waiting for them in the docks.

Illustrated London News 25th October 1851
http://www.iln.org.uk/iln_years/year/150yearsagooct18.html

Qualasirssuaq was also portraited in several paintings. The first portrait (below), dated in 1851, surely was made while studying in Canterbury or perhaps after recently arrived (notice his smiling face): 

Qalasirssuaq (Erasmus Augustine Kallihirua), circa 1832/5-1856

http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/14286.html


This second portrait dated in 1855 is quite different, surely done back in Labrador, his posture makes him resembling older and you can notice his sick-like countenance:


http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayEcopies&lang=eng&rec_nbr=3029962&title=Kallihirua.+&ecopy=e002291387

His end, unfortunately, was not very different to that of some of the men of the Franklin expedition, he acquired a mortal sickness during the winter 1855-56  which ended fatally after he had a bath in the cold waters of a lake close to the place were he was continuing his studies in Labrador. The surgeon report said: "Melanosis. The whole sustance of his lungs was black". This is in fact an early and sad end for a man who had been loved for all the people who had surrounded him all his time since he was picked up in the HMS Assistance and for a man who had been dramatically separated from his family.

Kalli´s Memorial in Newfoundland
http://www.canterburytimes.co.uk/David-LewisCanterbury-History-Archaeological/story-20084840-detail/story.html
The case of Kalli was nor the first nor the last of others on which Inuit people were brought to Europe. Thank Goodness, this time he was not exhibited as a part of a show like Francis Hall did time after with Tookolito and his family, but more the contrary, he was taken to London by Erasmus Ommanney to visit its most beautiful monuments, exhibitions and museums and taken to Canterbury to visit the Cathedral.

Legacy:  It seems that in the Caird Library of the National Maritime Museum exists a copy of the book "Arctic Miscellanies" based on the articles writen by the men in a newspaper called: "Aurora Borealis" during the Ommanney´s expedition of 1850-1851. The book has been, or currently is, available here. In this book there are present some of the Kalli´s thoughts or quotes during his days on board. The one I have read in this link which I have consulted (posted by K. Martin) could perfectly have been used as his epitaph and sounds ironic considering his story and final fate:

"If England is so great, why did you leave?"


Note about the origin of the title of the post: From the memoirs of Erasmus York 

"Compliance with the precept in the Old Testament, "Love ye the stranger," becomes a delight as well as a duty in such an instance as that about to be recorded, especially when we consider the affecting injunction conveyed in the Epistle to the Hebrews, "Be not forgetful to entertain strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares."